Para Grice (), las implicaturas conversacionales poseen tres propiedades principales. En primer lugar, y, como ya habíamos apuntado, poseen un. 10 abr. A proeminência dos estudos sobre implicatura conversacional: Uma segunda contribuição importante feita pela noção de implicatura é o. Implicatura. LT Tipos de implicaturas correcta de las palabras que utilizamos . (sintácticamente correctas). Implicación conversacional.
|Published (Last):||9 April 2012|
|PDF File Size:||11.82 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||13.66 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
For this purpose, twenty-six students were assigned to an experimental and control group and their performance was measured through a written multiple-choice test before and after the treatment.
The analysis of the data indicated that most students in both groups proved to be rather insensitive to implicatures before instruction. However, after being exposed to explicit teaching, the students in the experimental group exhibited a significant improvement in their recovery of implicatures.
In our everyday communication we do not merely encode what we think in words, but our intentionality is also reflected through the linguistic choices that we make. Thus, in order to arrive at the intended message, it is not sufficient to draw its meaning from the language itself.
We must also, and more importantly, work out what the sender wants to convey through it. When the literal meaning of what speakers say does not coincide with what they intend to communicate, listeners rely on a set of principles to infer indirect meaning. Given the pervasiveness of this inferencing process, which Grice coined conversational implicature, in our daily interaction Green, as cited in Bouton,it is undeniable that this strategy is highly significant in interpreting and conveying a message in a conversation.
Also, it has been claimed that the principles resorted to in the interpretation of implicatures can operate differently across societies Keenan, as cited in Bouton,among different social groups and situations Leech, and therefore pose an obstacle to cross-cultural communication.
He found out that their interpretations varied from those of the native speakers and also among themselves. Consequently, he discredited the influence of language proficiency and attributed the differences to their belonging to different cultures. The findings in two studies on conversational implicatures support this idea. In a later studyBouton tested the teachability of implicatures and came to the conclusion that those implicatures which were difficult to recover through exposure benefited from explicit instruction.
The other study that investigated the role of instruction in the interpretation of implicatures was conducted by Kubota Thus, the role of instruction becomes more important.
The salient contribution of the notion of implicature to pragmatics lies in the fact that it offers some explanations of how it is possible to convey meanings which are not directly expressed in words. The concept of implicature promises to bridge the gap between what is literally said and what is conveyed. Grice coined the word conversational implicature to refer to the inferencing process by means of which the meanings of utterances are interpreted in relation to their context of use Bouton, When he describes how implicature works, Grice asserts that conversational implicatures are based on some general rules or maxims of conversational behaviour.
These rules fall into what he labeled the Cooperative Principle CP. It aims at guiding participants on using language efficiently and effectively and towards achieving cooperative goals. In other words, it assumes that people taking part in communication expect themselves and the others to be cooperative, that is, be truthful, be informative, be true, be relevant and be brief.
It is this shared knowledge on the part of interlocutors that gives rise to conversational implicatures. The inferencing process through which implicatures arise results from either adhering to the maxims or deliberately infringing the maxims.
According to Grice, the maxims are rational ways of interacting cooperatively rather than arbitrary conventions. He suggests that since interlocutors do not always uphold the maxims in communication, when they are faced with an apparent non-cooperative response, they will try to go beyond it on the assumption that the principle of cooperation is preserved Levinson, Grice meant the term implicature to differ from the literal meaning of the expressions and to cover all pragmatic inferences.
He distinguishes conversational implicatures from conventional implicatures. The latter are inferences which, contrary to conversational implicatures, are strictly dependent on the use of certain lexical items and do not have to be retrieved from knowing the maxims that rule conversation Levinson, Bouton distinguishes two subsets within conversational implicatures according to their nature.
Those implicatures which possess a systematic nature are known as formulaic implicatures, whereas those implicatures that do not have an inherent formula are labelled non-formulaic or idiosyncratic implicatures.
Within the first subset, he differentiates implicatures based on a structural formula from those based on a semantic formula. This kind of implicature is named after the prototypical rhetorical question, Is the Pope Catholic? Sequence-based implicatures result from the presence of the word and and are based on the idea that the order in which the events are expressed coincides with the order in which they occurred. Implicatures based on the Minimum Requirement Rule result from providing the addressee with the minimum amount of information needed for the conversation to continue.
Indirect criticism and irony constitute the second group. Indirect criticism implicature is generally used in response to a request for an evaluation of something when the evaluation is negative.
Ironies are successfully decoded when, confronted with a blatantly false utterance and assuming that the speaker is being cooperative, the hearer searches for another meaning that differs from the actual words. This is how interlocutors arrive at the opposite, or negation, of what has been stated.
Las implicaturas conversacionales
There is only one type of implicature in the second subset, namely relevance-based implicature. It is interesting to note that the universality of the CP has not been sustained because it has been argued that coversacionales Gricean maxims do not cojversacionales in the same manner in all communities Leech, The fact that they may be utilised differently across cultures could make people from one society misinterpret implicatures used by those from another one.
For instance, in his cross-sectional study, Bouton concluded that the international SL learners differed in their interpretation of implicatures with respect to the native speakers and among themselves. More precisely, out of the six im;licaturas groups under study he convesracionales out that the Latin Americans occupied the second nearest position with respect impllcaturas the Americans, who were the target group Bouton, Interlanguage pragmatics research has mainly concentrated on the study of production rather than judgement and conversaclonales.
Studies on judgement and perception examine the differences that may arise in L2 speech and written simulations between native speakers and learners which, in comparison with production studies, are not easily observable but equally important.
Many of these studies have focused on FL learners because, compared to SL learners, they tend to receive less TL input or their chances to produce the TL outside the classroom are rather scarce.
As Bardovi-Harlig puts it: The keen interest in the influence of the first language and conversacionalse on TL learning can reflect the close connection between interlanguage and crosscultural pragmatics studies Bardovi-Harlig, Kasper describes this influence as pragmatic transfer which can be either positive or negative. This leads to successful interactions, whereas when a correspondence between the two languages is wrongly assumed by learners, namely negative transfer, the outcome could be the use of non-target expressions or their avoidance Bardovi-Harlig, In particular, adult learners can resort to their universal or L1-based pragmatic knowledge implifaturas acquiring FL pragmatics.
It seems that learners immersed in the TL culture are at an advantage with respect to those in an FL context. However, as often as not, textbooks cannot be trusted to provide reliable pragmatic input since this input is not always presented in a realistic and contextualised way to language students Bardovi-Harlig, More precisely, Bouton as cited in Kubota, found that there are few examples of implicatures in ESL textbooks and they are not usually implicaturqs with explicitly.
Assisting learners with authentic input should be aimed at in pedagogy so as to attempt to implicaturaz the pragmatic differences between learners conversavionales native speakers Takahashi, By way of example, watching videos is an appealing way for learners to notice the TL area in natural discourse since it gives learners the chance to access and integrate sociopragmatic and pragmalinguistic knowledge fast and efficiently Tateyama, Studies on the effect of instruction in pragmatics support the idea that explicit teaching is more effective in helping learners develop their TL pragmatic competence in comparison with implicit teaching or lack of instruction Kasper, ; Takahashi, ; Tateyama, ; Yoshimi, Testing also has implicayuras effect on interlanguage pragmatics.
Undoubtedly, SL learners are at an advantage over FL learners since their learning success usually combines test results and success in communicating with native speakers. Within the few data-based interventional studies on interlanguage pragmatics, some authors have focused on how different classroom experiments impact on the acquisition of implicatures Kasper, Bouton conducted a series of studies on the interpretation of implicature.
In a cross-sectional study he tested nonnative speaking NNS students who belonged to six different culture groups.
They had the same level of English proficiency and had just arrived in the USA. This study aimed at investigating whether their interpretation of implicatures in American English differed from that of 28 college educated American native speakers NSs Bouton, The latter took the same test as the SL students and it consisted of a multiple-choice instrument. Bouton concluded that native speakers and SL learners with the same language proficiency and different L1 implicatruas differed in their interpretation of implicatures.
Moreover, these differences were also found within the SL group.
On this basis, Bouton concluded that it seems unquestionable that people who belong to different cultures differ in their interpretation of at least some implicatures. Since he found that native speakers and SL learners with the same language proficiency and different L1 backgrounds differed in their interpretation of implicatures, he dismissed these differences as being due to their proficiency level and attributed them to the learners having different cultural backgrounds Bouton, His first longitudinal study was carried out with thirty of the original subjects who were still on campus four and a half years later.
Bouton carried out a second and more detailed longitudinal study. The first conversacionaales was retested after 17 months and the second one after 33 months. Also, these two groups were compared with a group of Chinese students who had stayed on campus between 4 and 7 years so as to see how much progress could be expected beyond that of the 33 month group. They were divided into an experimental and a control group. The latter followed the regular syllabus and did not receive any instruction in implicature.
The experimental group received explicit instruction in implicature and they were encouraged to find examples of implicatures cnversacionales the classroom and also in their L1. Both the experimental and control groups were tested before and after the treatment.
The same test was administered as a pretest and posttest.
It is worth mentioning that the time and materials employed in delivering instruction to the experimental i,plicaturas were made part of the regular syllabus Bouton, He compared the conversacionxles in this study with the findings in conversxcionales previous studies and drew a number of conclusions.
He found out that in the case of formulaic implicatures teaching proved to implicaturqs more effective than mere exposure to the TL culture for 17 months to 7 years, whereas non-formulaic implicatures, which were easily recovered by all the NNS students by the time they arrived in the USA, were resistant to formal instruction.
Bouton concluded that the clues present in formulaic implicatures allow for dealing with them as whole sets which students can identify and apply to different contexts. This characteristic distinguishes them from non-formulaic implicatures which, since they are largely idiosyncratic, lack an overall system and consequently do not have a pattern to be taught and learned systematically Bouton, Her conversacionapes items included a multiple-choice test and a sentence-combining test in which the subjects had to write conversational implicatures.
The students were divided into three groups: A, B, and C and all of them were given the same pretest. Groups Implicaturaa and B were the two instructed groups and C was the control one, which received no treatment. The teacher explicitly explained the rules concerning conversational implicatures to group A, and group B performed consciousness-raising tasks in small groups to discover the rules.
Later, the teacher provided them with the correct answers. Two posttests were given to the three groups. The first posttest was administered twenty minutes after the instruction and the second one was given one month after the study.
Implicatura by LORENA TOLEDO CONTRERAS on Prezi
Therefore, the treatments in groups A and B proved to implicatturas more effective at inducing a positive learning implicatuuras on the subjects than no treatment, at least for a short period of time. Length of treatment is one of the main differences between these studies.
The participants involved in this study were twenty-six Argentinian adult students receiving formal classroom instruction in English as a foreign language at a language school in Santa Fe.
The subjects belonged to two intact classes attending level 5. Due to institutional and administrative constraints, it was not possible to assign subjects randomly to the experimental and control groups and also, we could not administer standardised proficiency tests to our subjects. Therefore, we made sure that the population in this study was matched for subject variables as much as possible, and we had to rely on language tests given by the institution.
The mean age in both groups was of twenty-five years in the experimental group and the number of males and females was relatively even.