Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro. Download (Select Language). English: English. File Size: KB. Date: 15/10/ Country / Entity: Philippines. The Institute for Autonomy and Governance (IAG) welcomes the signing of the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro between the Philippine government. Maffi as her friends call, manages the digital media platforms of the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process. She is bossy – not.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Therefore, numerous efforts has been taken to counter the conflict between Manila and Mindanao; Bangsamoro in order to ensure the stability and security of the South East Asia.
On this writing, the main focus will revolve around the Framework Agreement on Bangsamoro which been signed on October 5, which marked the new phase of Manila — Mindanao relationship. Background of the Conflict The origins of the Southern Philippines ethno-religious conflict could be traced back to the era of Spanish — American war which occurred in that leads to the signed of Treaty of Paris. Although, Southern Philippines never became a part of Spanish Colony, due to the Mulu Sultanate aggression towards the Spanish military forces, Mindanao and Sulu remains as independents states ruled by Islamic royal government Sulu Sultanate.
However, status quo of these two states was dramatically changed under the new agreement signed between the Spanish Colony and Americans; under the new agreement Mindanao and Sulu later became a part of United States Empire in Philippines.
Muslim Filipinos in the south strongly protested this action on the grounds that they were independent states, and U. What followed was a variety of policies designed to integrate Muslim Filipinos into the larger mainstream Christian Filipino society.
Despite the success of many of these efforts, armed resistance by various Muslim Filipino groups continued to break out periodically throughout American colonial rule and continued after the Philippines became an independent nation DeKalb, Based on the bitter historical event, the Muslim Flipinos in Southern felt they became the victims of the colonial powers and this continued till the country obtained independent on July 4, from the United States.
The causes of this rebellion are many, but have much to do with desires to re-acquire the status of a separate, independent state, or Bangsamoro, wherein Muslim Filipinos would have greater access to and control over social services so that they could actually benefit from economic development in Mindanao.
They also wanted to be able to protect their ancestral lands from being taken over by Christian Filipino or other multi-national corporations and settlers, and establish an Islamic way of life. The conflict between the Southern Philippines and central government in Manila became worst when the huge Christians immigration happened around early s. The scenario was perceived negatively by the Moros and indigenous tribal Filipinos Lumad as a threat to their landlord status over the ancestral lands.
Not only they lose the status quo but in the aspect of political power, the Christians Filipinos replaced the authority which used belong to the local datu.
Although after the bloody clash between the MNLF and government militart, there were several efforts to control the conflict like by creating the Southern Philippines Development Authority and interventions by the Organization of Islamic Thhe and other international parties, but it seemed to be fruitless till the intervention made by Libya under Muammar Gaddafi.
It provided for political autonomy for the thirteen provinces of Mindanao, Sulu and southern Palawan, which Moro Filipinos saw as their traditional homeland or sphere of influence. It also gave amnesty to the rebels. Unfortunately, the actual plan of Tripoli Agreement was seemed to be a threat to the Manila under Ferdinand Marcos, thus the autonomy government do not really gained assistance and co-operation from the Manila and bansamoro to be weak and ineffective.
The weaker autonomy governments and for some provinces they even failed to ratified the autonomy status caused the fractions within MNLF groups. Starting from the era of President Corazon Aquino the Philippines government tried the negotiation approach as the counter-strategy in solving the issues that involving the ethnic Muslims in Southern Philippines, however due to the misrepresentation of failure on behalf of the central government to include MNLF as a part of the in the design of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao ARMMthus it lead to the huge failure.
Bangsammoro, due to some political conflicts within the Southern areas itself, the Peace Agreement the continuous efforts after that previous two faced failure.
Road map for peace: Highlights of the Bangsamoro framework agreement
As a result, MNLF launched rfamework attack to the national army and caused him Misuari to escape to Malaysia which later on been caught and charged for the rebellion. In one perspective, some people might bangsamorro that the internal oppositions towards Nur Misuari lead to the failure of the new Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao, or in other words the Muslims minorities reject him as their leader.
However, in another way of analysis there are miscalculations or weakness on the part of central government in understanding the needs and socio-politics environment that shape the region. Therefore, the root causes of the conflict in Southern Philippines would be the leading stone in solving the conflict itself.
What is the conflict? Frramework questions created the framework of the root causes of the conflict in Framewwork Philippines. The basis that underlies the conflict in Mindanao ffamework refers to the struggle to acquire better socio- economic development, socio-economic development, equal recognition and support for their cultural and framewprk identities, and social justice as what has been prevailed in the research carried out by Dr.
There are several key factors that contribute to the root causes of the conflict, as what have been determined from the research finding led by Dr. Oon than having the opportunity to express their grievances and receive assistance from the government, Moro and Lumad Filipinos experience massive poverty, social injustice, and are exploited by corrupt leaders and military commanders alike.
The national Philippine government, from their viewpoint, is indifferent to their plight and so they do not experience feelings of belongingness or allegiance to the Philippine state. Moro and Lumad Filipinos scarcely comprehended, and now mining concessions have led to an enormous loss of their homeland and resources upon which to develop their communities. From this, we may see the conflict in Southern Philippines not only about ethnic-religious conflict as what has been known for decades through media, but the complex politicization that separates those three groups led to the crisis that what we see today.
It is the process of marginalization, not only in the sense of being overwhelmed by the sheer number of Christian settlers, but by the loss of homeland and the fear of further erosion of their cultural and religious identities, that underlie the conflict.
Yet it is only through the establishment of awareness and tthe for ethnic and religious diversity among all peoples in the Philippines that a climate of tolerance and social justice is likely to come about in the south.
Thus, a negotiation can be regarded as the steps taken in the stage of bbangsamoro settlement which relies on the third party intervention by aiming to stop conflict behavior and reaching some compromise settlement. Before any parties reaching the stage of negotiation, there are several steps that will be taken before parties involved decided to go for negotiation as method to solve the conflict.
The disputant parties at first will try to bargain with each other as the act to reduce the bangsakoro that might happen during the negotiation process.
From that stage, it will lead to the counter-strategy applied in the negotiation process which offer different technique for variety of situations. It is important since every conflict is unique thus, the different negotiation strategies are required in handling each cases.
Overall, when we discuss on the concept of negotiation, it always refer to the three main stages: Framework Agreement on Bangsamoro FAB Framework Agreement could be considered as the continuous efforts taken by both parties — Bangsamoro and the Government of Philippines, signed under the ruling of President Aquino.
This agreement was seen as the continuous from the previous peace agreement initiated by President Fidel Ramos inFinal Peace Agreement called for by the Tripoli Agreement resulted to the formation in of an expanded and functioning Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao ARMM.
Therefore, the Framework Agreement can be considered as the counter action for the past mistakes in the Final Peace Agreement. The Framework agreement was created in order to tackle which areas previously failed to solved by the Final Peace Agreement and with the more balance outcomes for both disputant parties.
The framework agreement is remarkable for two reasons. First, the MILF made a major concession in agreeing to a formula for determining which areas would be under a new Bangsamoro government. If the MOA-AD was revelatory for the territorial scope of a future homeland, the framework agreement is surprising because of the process it sets out for securing the consent of the Bangsamoro to join this new entity.
The framework agreement charts a path forward for the parties to replace it with the new Bangsamoro government.
The last section states that the agreement cannot be implemented unilaterally and that the parties will complete the agreement by the end of Four supplementary annexes are still to come. Another crucial area was the Christian settlers and their court case against the previous agreement, as a result due to the legal proceedings, the Final Peace Agreement could not work accordingly.
Therefore, at this stage, by creating the Framework Agreement on Bangsamoro, clear and effective solutions were created and discussed in order to avoid repeating the same mistakes as what happen in the Final Peace Agreement. Parties Involved The Framework Agreement on Bangsamoro can be regarded as the negotiation that involved the third party who acts as the mediator, in this case the position as the mediator for the negotiation process between MILF and Government of Philippines was Malaysia.
President Aguinou and his cabinet determined to settle the long-term conflict with the Southern Philippines — Mindanao with the help of Malaysia as the host country.
In the security perspective, the armed conflict that happens in Southern Philippines will cause to spillover effect to the neigbouring countries. The status of Muslim country hold by Malaysia leads to the greater tendency for the spillover effect to give impact to Malaysia. The Muslims sympathies towards the Moro civilians in Mindanao leads to the huge contribution in terms of money, facilities and even to some extent, there were Malaysians reported undergo militant training conducted by MNLF.
Thus, Malaysia perceive it as a threat to their own national security, by helping Manila in dealing with Bangsamoro, actually it helps Malaysia reducing the risk for its own sovereignty.
Therefore, by ensuring the peace agreement will work accordingly between Manila and MILF, indirectly Malaysia will reduce the risk towards its tourism industry, fishing and trading since stability in Mindanao will also means peace and stability in Sabah. Stated Positions and Demand The crisis that incur between Government of Philippines and the Mindanao — Bangsamoro particularly could be summed up as the failure for both parties to reach the mutual consensus to each parties demands. Thus, it is very crucial for us to understand what are the main demands of the Moros towards the Government of Philippines, since previously we have been discussed on the issues relate to the root causes of the Southern Philippines separatist movement, from that points it lead us to the demand of Bangsamoro.
Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro – Wikipedia
Based on the Framework Agreement on Bangsamoro, there are several demands forwarded to the Government of Philippines. The Establishment of Bangsamoro previously the called upon self-ruled government but under the new leadership of MILF, the demand only discussed on the creating of autonomous government of Bangsamoro to replace the ARMM.
Collective democratic rights of constituents in Bangsamoro shall be recognized in Bangsamoro Basic Law. Composition of the Bangsamoro territory: The incident happened on Basilan, one of the three island provinces of the Sulu archipelago which stretches from the western tip of Mindanao to eastern Malaysia — hundreds of kilometers away from the MILF stronghold of Central Mindanao.
The military operation that triggered the clash was not coordinated through the ceasefire mechanisms, but the outcry in Manila was immediate and condemnation of the MILF swift. However, it never broke down the efforts taken by both parties to reach the mutual peace agreement. Those provisions stated in FAB could be seen as much or less similar to the ones which have been presented previously in the The Memorandum of Agreement on the Ancestral Domain MOA —ADwhich covers many controversial issues which is apparently similar with MOA —AD but more comprehensive in matters significant with the governance of Southern counterparts.
From the new status gained by MILF, it directly helps in creating a legal and formal ministerial form of Bangsamoro government which make them eligible to the rights of the state government, ancestral identity and other indigenous that populate the Southern area will be recognized their rights as the people of Republic of Philippines.
The provisions of the Bangsamoro Basic Law shall be consistent with all agreements of both parties and shall reflect the Bangsamoro system of life and meet internationally accepted standards of governance. Under this provisions, the rights to choose and formulated the Southern government will lies in the hands of Bangsamoro people as well as other ethnicities in Mindanao.
Powers Due to the official recognition of the autonomous political entity which will be officially gained by the yearthe concept of power sharing between Manila as Central Government and Bangsamoro as the state will prevail. It means, Bangsamoro as other state government in the republic system will exercise it s own exclusive powers and at the same time there will be some areas shared by both central and state government. In conjunction with that matter, the legal accreditation of halal certification will be under the power of Bangsamoro.
Revenue Generation and Wealth Sharing As what have been practiced by other state government in republic system, the Bangsamoro will have the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes, fees, and charges, subject to limitations as may be mutually agreed upon by the Parties. This power shall include the power to determine tax bases and tax rates, guided by the principles of devolution of power, equalization, equity, accountability, administrative simplicity, harmonization, economic efficiency, and fiscal autonomy.
The Parties agree that sustainable development is crucial in protecting and improving the quality of life of the Bangsamoro people. To this end, the Bangsamoro shall develop a comprehensive framework for sustainable development through the proper conservation, utilization and development of natural resources.
For efficient coordination and assistance, the Bangsamoro legislative body shall create, by law, an intergovernmental body composed of representatives of the Bangsamoro and the Central Government, which shall ensure the harmonization of environmental and developmental plans, as well as formulate common environmental objectives. The power to govern within the said territories will be given to Bangsamoro as the democratic rights of the constituents and legitimacy of the autonomous government.
Basic Rights In addition to basic rights already enjoyed, the all citizens residing in the Bangsamoro bind the legislature, executive and judiciary as directly enforceable law and are guaranteed. It means all the rights which should be gained and prevailed in the democracy system should be practiced to all the citizen in Southern areas.
Bangwamoro addition, the Central Government shall ensure the protection of the rights of the Bangsamoro people residing outside the territory of the Bangsamoro and undertake programs for the rehabilitation and development of their communities. The Bangsamoro Government may provide assistance to their communities to enhance their economic, social and cultural development. Transition and Implementation Both parties agree to the need for a transition period and the institution of transitional mechanisms which forms a part of banfsamoro Framework Agreement 8.
Normalization The Parties agree that normalization is vital to the peace process. It is through normalization that communities can return to conditions where they can achieve their desired quality of life, which includes the pursuit of sustainable livelihoods and political participation within a peaceful deliberative society. Miscellaneous This Agreement shall not framswork implemented unilaterally. It requires both parties commit to work further on the details of the Framework Agreement in the context of this document and complete a comprehensive agreement by the end of the year.
However, bangsamoeo are many obstacles or vague areas which become the indicator for the success of the Framework Agreement itself. Firstly, the questions whether the peace settlements will be last longer remain the big questions.
Since, the tenure of President Aquino will last till Thus, it is pivotal bangsamoeo to ensure that his legacy in solving the decades of conflict that incur between Manila and Mindanao will be continued by his predecessors.
Another important point would be the legality of the Framework Agreement itself, since the previous agreement was challenged by the Court decision filed by the Christian minorities in Southern areas, thus the skeptical point of view on whether President Aquino succeeded in convincing the legislative bodies to accept the new enactments pertaining to Bangsamoro which actually leads to the amendment of several provisions under the Philippines Constitutions.
From this perspective, nobody can deny that the huge responsibility lies on the shoulder of Mr.