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Skip to main content. Log Economis Sign Up. Scheiner Museums, museology and the restitution of cultural heritage at the nikjtin of a new global ethics Supreo Chanda economla Calcutta, India Two case studies about Poltiica cultural heritage Los museos y el problema ecnoomia retorno de obras de arte: Brulon Soares — Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Shah — Hyderabad, India While thinking about Social Harmony within theoretical museology, we asked ourselves: What can museums do to help societies reach that goal?

How and when do museum people fit into this picture? Later on we discovered that there are many ways to do so.

A new global ethics for deaccession and return of cultural heritage. It was not easy to handle a topic which includes so many implications.

Are deaccession and return the same problem? Do museums have the right to deaccession? Do museums have the duty to return cultural property to previous owners?

These concerns are not only practical, they are theoretical and emotional, involving the entire society in a reality that affects all of us. The papers received from all over the world for the ICOFOM Study Series 39 approach the issue from many angles, where different opinions and conclusions enrich our own thoughts on the topic. I would like to mention here the work done by a group of our Chinese colleagues, most of them from important Chinese Universities, who have felt ploitica involved with ICOFOM premises, based on the theoretical foundations of museology.

In consequence, through their papers, they have dealt with theoretical issues where difficult terms as deaccession and restitution were presented from the viewpoints of their own reality. We owe our special gratitude to our Chinese hosts for receiving us compldto their country at the fascinating city of Shanghai which surprises us at all times and to An Laishun, whose silent and steady work within the organization of the General Conference has been decisive.

However, it was considered that they should be added as a valuable contribution, a landmark on the development of theoretical museology in China. One of the paragraphs 2.

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Money or compensation received from the deaccessioning and disposal of objects and specimens from a museum collection should be used solely for the benefit of the collection and usually for acquisitions to that same collection”2. It is usually acknowledged that museums have been created to preserve specimens, objects and works of art which politicaa been passed on to them while, at the same time, they complete their collections with new acquisitions.

The principle of museums is based on the concept of preserving certain types of heritage; furthermore, the possibility of disposing of a part of what was entrusted to them is usually experienced by many curators as lolitica thwart to their vocation. For many decades it has been known that this notion is not equally addressed by museums in Anglo-American and Latin countries, such as France, Argentina, Italy or Spain.

Nonetheless, discussions on the problem of deaccessioning seem to have shifted. In the United States of America, the sale of several master works of art from collections pertaining to Jefferson University, Pennsylvania or to Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, triggered an important wave of criticism within the world of museums which was widely relayed by the press3.

The current financial crisis which is hitting US museums has refueled these tensions. Overwhelmed by debts, certain museums — the most well- known case is that of the National Academy Museum, New York — were forced to sell part of their collections to alleviate their deficit, which annoyed and even gave rise to a boycott from the powerful Association of US Art Museum Directors4.

Code of Ethics for Museums, The issue of deaccession: Below I will describe five lines of thought for complsto potential discussion on the topic of heritage deaccession and cession of collection objects. The origin of some terms The French and Spanish languages are not prepared to describe the process of deaccessioning since most of the collections of the countries that use those languages are generally inalienable.


In French just like in Spanish the notion of inalienability is one of the essential principles of a museum collection, of museums that are considered to be institutions7.


According to the ICOM definition, museums are permanent institutions and their long- lasting nature — if it arises from consensus within society — also becomes clear through those devices in charge of integrating museum collections into the public domain.

In law, public property is by definition inalienable. The opposite term is alienable and, therefore, the action of definitively removing an object from a collection’s inventory is called deaccessioning. The first connotation of this term is legal: The origin of the term derived from the Latin word alienatio dates back to the 13th century.

The term cession is also defined in Civil, International or Commercial Law and means transferring — either at a ceonomia or free of charge — ownership of property, an interest or right to another person. In this regard, accession describes the transfer of an object from daily life to a museum collection by adding it to the inventory.

Accession to the collection somehow illustrates a status that curators will define as superior, due to the loss of use of an object or its exchange for a value of significance semiophore. The term deaccession is in this sense a kind of degradation, a return to daily life values. Practical issues If deaccession supporters resort to a number of broad principles related to the role of the State underlining the consequences of deaccessioning, such as the ultimate loss 6 D.

Recent British and Dutch publications9 insist on the principle currently applied to private collections according to which lihro optimization of collection management, under the pressure of limited material resources, lies necessarily on a partial curtailment. It would be advisable to preserve only those objects directly related to a museum’s mission or, more polituca, to its project as defined by its mission statement and stated in the organization’s operational plans and the related collection policy.

From this standpoint, it can be noted that the problem of deaccession is undeniably related to that dd acquisitions and collection management10 According to this same rational, undoubtedly museum reserves are not endless. If the notion of inalienability is strictly respected, how will the world of museums institutions defined as permanent be addressed five or compketo centuries from now? More so, when the material production of our societies is considered exponential, dragging along in its wake the development — also exponential — of those objects that have lost their use pollitica exchange value management of remains and that of musealized objects.

What sacrifice are we willing to make?

To preserve collections as best as possible according to the inalienability principles guaranteed by the State ends up by turning society into one controlled by public powers, increasing the necessary resources to preserve such collections and, obviously, taxes. If a oibro is willing to live on less income to ensure that heritage is perennial, we wonder whether that feeling is shared by society at large.

Financial matters Although practically speaking a great number of pibro professionals in the United States, Great Britain, the Netherlands, etc. Indeed for some years now the commitment of those who are in charge of management within museums and hold a Master’s degree in Business Administration has not really favoured the possibility of considering that collections are true “assets”13 9 National Museum Director Conference, too much Stuff? Amsterdam, Instituut Collection Nederland, available on the Internet: Guidelines for museums, London; Museums Association, sd.

Kok, Niets gaat verloren. Twintig jaar selectie en afstoting uit Nederlandse museale collecties, Amsterdam, Compleo Stichting, On the other hand, adjustments made in order to separate from superfluous objects always privileges the public domain, focusing first on the politicz of objects to other compleot or public collections, before proposing their dispersion into the private domain. Consult on the Internet: Paris, Liana Levi, When analyzing the development of collections and the lack of inventories, US economist William Grampp, based on examples that support his theories, calls for waiving any subsidies to museums with a view to having them operate as commercial organizations.

According to the above economist, should part of the dormant collections or those on show be sold, museums would no doubt lbiro a more reasonable idea about the objects that the public at large wishes to see and complego organize more popular temporary exhibitions to benefit all Grampp’s controversial reasoning is rarely followed by his colleagues, more so because the supporters of “the invisible hand” of the market have seen their star get dimmer in light of the current crisis.

This has not hindered most economists from pointing out the museal stock, of unlimited growth, apparently aberrant in the eyes of the market, suggesting the sale of such stock. Managers who cannot decide to sell the assets in their portfolio in order to purchase others would go bankrupt in the long term, since very often it jikitin better to sell and to buy wisely.

Moral and ethical dimensions The debate on deaccession appears to be problematic within the universe of museums; the pertinent sections in the above-mentioned Code of Ethics are good evidence thereof, as well as the bibliography prepared by ICOM If a part of the debate is — in a caricature of the issue — based on such a stance we must agree that the matter cannot be set forth in those terms.


Overall, it is essential to consider the unique works of art and objects which entail a real problem.

Among the objects, works of art are the main focus of discord. In other words, specimens of natural history, multiple objects, etc.

The multiple issue inevitably refers to the substitute see ISS on Originals and Substitutes in museums, Zagreb, and we know to what extent it is conditioned by worship of the original, authentic object.

Such an issue led to worshiping relics which extended all throughout the Middle Ages. In that regard, it is worth pointing out that Canonic Law banned their sale and marketing at a very early stage. In this context, we cold make the hypothesis that this object worship is about the re-emergence of certain kinds of conflicts which violently hit Protestants and Catholics in the 16th century. Almost five centuries later a sort of demarcation line that reminds us of religious wars seems to still act as a dividing line between supporters and detractors of the inalienability principle.

ICOM aims at guiding the behaviour of professionals. But museal deontology must undeniably be reviewed on the basis of ethics. This philosophical discipline discusses the determination of those values that guide the behaviour of museum professionals.

Thus ICOFOM — as a discussion platform — is embedded in the heart of the ethical process of reflecting on the values of museums nikotin institutions. Which are the current principles that have allowed the formulation of ICOM standards?

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The relationship between human beings and the environment? In any case, it must be recognized that these principles are conditioned by the creation and development of the capitalistic world economy in which we live and that has spread worldwide. Maybe the notion of museums is not totally alien to the principles of accumulation which are the essence of all capitalist societies. A museological outlook The decisively pragmatic outlook that Anglo-Saxon museology supports does not greatly differ from the notions outlined as from the s by Eastern museology.

Musealization, which focuses on the thoughtful selection of material evidence of reality, its preservation as authentic testimonies and the modeling of reality museum- collection does not go against the deaccessioning or disposal of some objects to favour others whose specific features museality are superior. This position is based on the principle of musealization considered to be a scientific act which can be extended on the basis of the whole of the museal field. The collection of essays which support the definition of museums, published immediately after the ICOFOM Symposium held in Calgary,17 shows how broad the museal field is, based on which the museum-institution can be analyzed as well as the relative precariousness of its related rules.

Those responsible for museums — although they do not really intend to obtain ICOM’s institutional recognition — must respect certain criteria established by the profession. A museum that does not respect any commitment can be considered by museologists as a for profit institution in the universe of museums. A for-profit museum which sells part of its collections operates more aberrantly than an institutional museum based on heritage inalienability.

Although museology can be defined as the ethics of the museal field reflecting the values that condition responses to the problems set forth in this field analysis of inalienability, or of deaccession shall undeniably cut across the fields of the museal aspects themselves, of museums and the values evoked therein based on sensorial 16 P.

Certainly, the location of objects is preponderant within the museal world — their presence allows sensitive apprehension, the main form of operation of modern museums — but their preservation ad vitam or their authenticity are variants only recently determined in the 19th century. The current museums of substitutes for instance, on the Internet forcibly result from rules which singularly move away from what has been prescribed in the field of unique object preservation.

Could management of the latter have an influence on the development of the institution as a whole? Such a museum model, which was recently positioned on the basis of the concept of universal museums19, has so far done a good job at mainstreaming the notions of inalienability or very restricted alienability and non restitution. Just the same, the economic rationale prevails in the market economy.