Banzatto, D.A. and Kronka, S.N. () Experimentaoagrícola. AUTHORS: Luis S. L. S. Reis, Paulo E. Pardo, Neusa M. Frazatti-Gallina, Rosana L. Paoli. Temperatura e substrato para o teste de germinação de sementes de barbatimão . que 85%, de acordo com as recomendações de Banzatto e Kronka (). A suplementação de KCl na água regulou o número de eritrócitos e a . foram submetidos à análise estatística (BANZATTO e KRONKA, ) e as médias.
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Matricaria chamomilla CH 12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH 12 in diet and the other the ‘control’ was not.
Animals in both banzarto were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days.
Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels.
These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH 12suggesting that this product reduces stress.
These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects.
Neuroendocrine stress responses are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis HPAwhich promotes plasmatic cortisol kkronka [ 3826 ].
Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves
This response is vital to an organism that has to cope with a challenging environment [ 19 ]. Bovine stressors may be either physical or psychological. The most referenced stressors are vaccination [ 30 ], immobilization [ 19 ], handling in a hanzatto [ 37 ], installation [ 5 ], fear [ 28 ], presence of unfamiliar people [ 23 ], transportation [ 7 ], food and water deprivation [ 37 ], hot or cold environment [ 5 ], cirurgical procedures [ 6 ], crowding [ 7 ], isolation [ 9 ], confinement [ 11 ] and natural physiological changes parturition, lactation, weaning [ 37 ].
The effects of stress on bovine economy and production are remarkable. For example, in Argentina it has been estimated to account for losses of kronkq million dollars per year [ 7 ].
Moreover, the effects of the above stressors are increased when bovines are held in modern regimes, such as, intensive systems that impose severe stress [ 37 ] and require higher investments [ 11 ]. Under such conditions, stress impairs cattle growth, weight gains, milk production, and meat quality [ 11102637 ].
Phytotherapy or homeopathic products, such as, the chamomile Matricaria chamomillahave been used to decrease stress. Moreover, apigenin the active principle of chamomile, decreases cortisol plasma concentrations [ 41 ] and has sedative [ 39 ], analgesic [ 3 ], anxiolytic [ 39 ], anti inflammatory [ 33 ] and immunomodulatory effects [ 1 ].
Although the phytotherapeutic effects of chamomile are well documented, its anti-stress effect on bovines is not as well known. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated whether the chamomile-based product, Matricaria chamomilla CH 12prevents or reduces handling stress response in Nelore bovines. Sixty Nelore calves Bos indicusabout 12 months old, belonging to a farm situated in Lutecia, SP, Brazil, were studied.
Animals were fed Brachiaria decumbens from an extensive pasture system and supplemented with commercial mineral salt in an ad libitum manner. Nelore bansatto adapt well to these conditions. In both groups the animals were maintained banzatti for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and adaptation to pasture, and were then stressed on the 31th, 38th, 45th, and 60th days of the experiment. The kronla of this supplement consumed by the animals was estimated by incorporating Matricaria chamomilla CH 12 into mineral salt every day and calculating the mean individual salt consumption daily difference between salt weight offered and amount left after 24 h divided by the number of animals.
Blood samples were taken on days 31th, 38th, 45th, and 60th after immobilization, which was bazatto by leading animals to a corral in the morning of the sampling day, and restraining each animal in a trunk contention for 5 min immobilization blood samples were taken 10 ml from the jugular vein and stored in vacuum tubes not containing anticoagulant.
These tubes were kept in an insulated container in ice and soon centrifuged 2, rpm by 10min.
The stressors imposed on calves are: Animals in both groups showed increased serum cortisol from the beginning of the experiment and peak values were reached on the 45th day.
Cortisol levels then decreased gradually but did not reach basal values on the 60th day Fig. Effect of Matricaria Chamomilla CH 12 on calf serum cortisol.
Means with at least common lower case letter are similar within the given group. The handling procedures imposed on cattle in holding pens are stressful, and increase serum cortisol levels, although these levels are almost completely reestablished after animals have adjusted.
Cattle stress is attenuated by the chamomile-based product Matricaria chamomilla CH 12possibly because this material reduces serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH and has sedative, anxiolytic, and miorelaxing properties.
On the 31th experiment day after animals had adjusted to the feeding system and before or after applying constraint stress for 1 h, serum cortisol levels were 3. These values are close to the basal cortisol levels of 3. In this experiment, many factors may have caused the cortisol increase.
In fact, handling a primary stressor in farm animals and is known to impair animal welfare [ 592128 ]. Moreover, leading cattle to a holding pen is a forced physical exercise [ 122234 ], as is restraint in a ‘Brete’ chute [ 1935 ].
In addition, blood sampling [ 28 ] and the presence of unfamiliar people during handling [ 9161723 ] impose additional stress. The handling pen is a novelty for animals [ 202938 ], and shouting and physical aggression by handling [ 1632 ], and fear caused by the conditions mentioned above [ 51428 ] also acted as stressors in the present study.
Neuroendocrine stress response consists of the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis, which results in the secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland [ 82638 ]. This is a possible explanation the results obtained from the 38th day to the end of the experiment in both the control group and the group treated with Matricaria chamomilla CH On the 45th day of this experiment, control animals showed cortisol levels This response is in agreement with the results reported by Ohno et al.
In other mammals, the flavonoid apigenin contained in Matricaria chamomilla [ 25334042 ] was found to act on the nervous system by diverse and complex mechanisms [ 2713 ]. On the 60th day of the experiment, cortisol levels had dropped off in treated and control animals, and almost reached basal levels.
This reduction can be attributed to adjustment to handling procedures [ 182836 ]. Adjustments to stressors are caused by changes in the central nervous system at different levels, i. The capacity of bovines to adjust to stress differs among individual animals due to genetic [ 1519 ] and temperament features, i. The results of the present study provide evidence that Matricaria chamomilla CH 12 decreased stress in bovines. We hypothesize that the mechanisms involved are the inhibition of cortisol production and the calming and anxiolytic effects of this material.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Vet Sci v. Published online Jun Find articles by Paulo Eduardo Pardo. Find articles by Eunice Oba. Find articles by Sergio do Nascimento Kronka. Find articles by Neuza Maria Frazatti-Gallina.
Author information Copyright and Bajzatto information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Matricaria chamomilla W 12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Introduction Neuroendocrine stress responses babzatto regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis HPAwhich promotes plasmatic cortisol release [ 3826 ]. Stressors imposed on cattle The stressors imposed on calves are: Results Animals in both groups showed increased serum cortisol from the beginning of the experiment and peak values were reached on the 45th day.
Open in a separate window. Discussion The handling procedures imposed on cattle in holding pens are stressful, and increase serum cortisol levels, although these levels are almost completely reestablished after animals have adjusted. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of five herbal plants. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. Pharmacological profile of apigenin, a flavonoid isolated from Matricaria chamomilla. The biology of stress and its application to livestock housing and transportation assessment.
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