This is a text-only standard. This standard extends the application of steel casting reference radiographs E, E, and E The reference radiograph films. This standard is issued under the fixed designation E ; the number 1 These reference radiographs are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee. E-7 on. ASTM E Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 4 1/2-in. ( 51 to mm)) Steel Castings.
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The best way to verify the integrity of the sub-surface structure of a casting is by x-ray. By taking x-ray shots along ast length of the casting to ASTM E94 it is possible to view images of the structure.
Therefore, generally defining the overall integrity of the casting.
Many companies are now specifying that anodes should be supplied that pass an x-ray test to level 1, level 2 or level 3 ASTM E Although it is not economically viable to carry out an x-ray test on every anode, it is possible to demand that anodes supplied should pass an x-ray criteria level such as level 2 or better and that a percentage of anodes should be tested. By examining the quality of levels 1 to 5 that are displayed by anodes you are able to understand how the theoretical life design of the anode system will be affected.
The table below represents the most up to date summary for assessing the design life against the x-ray level acceptance criteria. Some companies, such as the ENI Group simply state their refusal to accept any anodes that are below level 3 and other companies have based their design life on their own experience and installations.
At level 2 for the acceptance criteria, there are some specific flaws that will influence the overall life of the anode. However, the size and frequency of these flaws are sufficiently small so their existence does not immediately require the need for the casting to be scrapped.
The x-ray e18 criteria should and does take in to account both the size, frequency and type of defect present. At acceptance criteria level 3 the casting may not perform correctly. Even though the silicon iron material retains gas porosity, if the anodes are produced to level 3 then there are additional flaws in the manufacturing procedure which are quantifiable and ideally should not be accepted. This is the same for level 4 and 5 as these flaws are increasing and the design life will be dramatically shortened.
These are our key findings. In the top x-ray of the die-cast anode dark circular shadows depicting sub-surface shrinkage can be seen around the area of the pouring cup, i. In the image, this area has been de ned as a level 3 ee186. If an accelerated corrosion test was carried out on the whole anode, then this area would be consumed at a faster rate than the remainder of the anode.
ASTM E – 15 Standard Reference Radiographs for Ductile Iron Castings
Likewise, if a mechanical test bar was machined axtm of this section of the casting, the results would fall far short of those exhibited by any section of the centrifugally-cast anode. We have retained these pieces for further testing by any interested party, if so desired.
This change in section is an inherent weakness in the design of a die-cast anode because the change in wall thickness means the thicker part of the casting cools more slowly than the narrow section. This slower cooling rate not only causes an inferior grain structure that f186 almost as poor as sand-cast anodes, but also necessitates an additional riser to help feed the shrinkage that is catalysed from the change in section. The x-ray image of the die-cast anode above shows a serious casting aw visible as a dark shadow in the connection area and is a real-life sample con rming the di culties encountered with this design.
This is a unique feature of the Centrifugal Casting method and is highly advantageous to the integrity of the casting. It should be noted that the type of defect seen on the x-ray and its aastm in the casting will further influence the design life.
Additionally, the centrifugally cast anode utilises a straight-walled anode design that has no change in cross section or thickness at the centre of the anode and no complex arrangement of sand cores die cast anodes require up to 10 sand cores per anode which are susceptible to individual discrepancies between every casting.
We have anodes stocked in 2 locations in the USA, utilising purpose-made connectors that have been used in over 1 million anodes over the last 35 years see g 4 for TA2 and TA5A connectors. We have previously been the only manufacturer exclusively supplying tubular anodes to the Durichlor 51 Anode company. The atsm tooling that is required to make these connections are 2 torque wrenches 1. These connections can be made in the factory or in the eld.
We have 3 XRF chemical analysis machines in both the UK and China and our pricing re ects the signi cant disparity between production costs when comparing foundry production costs in China to those in North America. This chart shows a comparison in sizes between Specialist Castings Anodes and other common anode sizes. To contact us about this report or any other area zstm can help with please use our contact page. You can find out more about which cookies we are using or switch them off in settings.
A direct comparison of Centrifugally Cast Tubular Anodes and Die Cast Tubular Anodes
Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your asm for cookie settings. If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. This x-ray shows a die-cast anode. This x-ray shows our centrifugally-cast anode.